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Codex commutationum (BayHStA HL Freising 3b)

cCodex Commutationum Fol. 160 v.Codex commutation fol. 160'


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The Codex Commutationum today consists of Kopialbücher of different eras and formats, which contain the exchanges of the bishops of the cathedral church of Freising, from Hitto (811-836) and especially Erchanbert (836-854) up to Egilbert (1006-1039). Around the middle of the ninth century this form of property conveyance by exchange largely displaced at Freising the noble donating practices. The exchanges were concluded by the Freising bishops above all to enlarge and consolidate the property of the bishopric. Presumably in the eleventh century the original documents relating to the tenures of the bishops Hitto/Erchanbert up to Egilbert lay ordered in the episcopal archive, which was located in the sacristy (J. Wild), and were included and protected additionally as duplicates in the exchange books of individual bishops. These served in turn as the copies for the production of a greater Kopialbuch, which forms with 30 extant, partly fragmentary quaternions the core of today's codex.

The manuscript is irregular and contains some Authentica (original documents) bound within; the foliation and order of the text are from the modern era. It begins with a four-part convolute, which arose around the turn from the eleventh to the twelfth century and contains exchanges made for the benefit of the cathedral chapter (fol. 1-19). Attached to this convolute was an evenly written Kopialbuch of exchanges from Bishop Hitto to Waldo (883-903), which belongs - with 16 quaternions total, from fol. 20 to 147 - to the core of the text. This part, up to fol. 82, was written by a hand of the eleventh century, and was subsequently continued by diverse hands, partly in a style imitating Cozroh.

In the second part of the codex is found from fol. 148 up to 189 a now incomplete compendium of the exchanges of Bishop Abraham (957-994), which are indexed as quaternions 17 through 23. The oldest quaternion palaeographically (fol. 190-197) contains a court decision and property conveyances from the time of Bishop Erchanbert. It belonged originally not to the Codex Commutationum but to the third part of Cozroh's manuscript (HL Freising 3a).

Folios 198 to 293 are characterized by highly varied documents of exchanges and a discontinuous numbering of quaternions. The exchanges of Bishop Egilbert, which run from fol. 265 to 293v, form a coherent complex of charters. Among the subsequent Authentica, the famous marriage contract of Freising's advocate Adalbert with his spouse Bertha stands out. This charter, recorded around 1070, was witnessed by 85 named representatives of the Bavarian aristocracy and the ministerial class (fol. 304-305, edition TF 2, no. 1469, p. 319; cf. A. Krah, 'Chancen einer Gleichstellung im Frühmittelalter?' p. 77).

An examination of these complex materials was made last by Theodor Bitterauf (Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Freising 1, München 1905, S. XXV-XXXI). A new, detailed examination of the manuscript and the recording of the Authentica is now in preparation.

Adelheid Krah (IÖG, Universität Wien)

Translated by Hans Hummer (Wayne State University)



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